(۲۰۰۹), through metaphor analysis got deep detailed insights into English language teaching and learning process. They first explored teaching, learning, and learner roles as entailed by the metaphors that were elicited from the participants categorized in the nine conceptual metaphors of a provider of knowledge, a friend, an organizer, a nurturer, a spiritual leader, a parent, an entertainer, a counselor, and an innovator. They also took into account the metaphors mentioned by male and female teachers separately. Then, they examined learners’ beliefs about teachers. Finally, they investigated to what extent teachers’ beliefs conformed to their practice through enquiring their learners.
Among the most recent studies are investigation by Pishghadam and Pourali (2011a; 2011b). In their first study, they used metaphor analysis as an indirect tool of delving into individuals’ beliefs and explored the use of metaphor to express the various perspectives of 50 Persian-speaking M.A. Iranian university students about the process of learning and teaching English as a second language. The focus of their study was on the EFL learning and teaching process and particularly the EFL teachers’ and leaners’ roles. This was in agreement with the objectives of our study although the participants were only limited to academic-level Persian-speaking EFL learners. Pishghadam and Pourali (1011a) collected the metaphors the students created by using the prompts “An English university student is/should be like a…” and “An English university professor is/should be like a…”, and then they identified and analyzed the metaphors. The results demonstrated that Iranian M.A. university students have different conceptions of English learning and teaching, wishing to form the bedrock of their teaching and learning paradigm based on situative learning concepts.
Following this study, in their second study, Pishghadam and Pourali (2011b) employed metaphor analysis and explored the nature of unconscious beliefs of 22 Iranian Persian-speaking Ph.D students. The results of this study revealed that Ph.D university students concur with forming the foundation of learning and teaching based on situative learning concepts.
In a series of studies on the beliefs of Iranian EFL learners, Farjami (2012a) in a metaphorical analysis, elicited images which learners hold about foreign language learning. To this end, a questionnaire was given to 350 learners of English in different places in Iran. The questionnaire asked the respondents to provide images about learning a foreign language by using a sentence completion task: “Learning a foreign language is like ………..” The responses gained in 200 questionnaires were content-analyzed and the identified images and metaphors were summarized under more broad-ranging categories.
In a follow-up study, Farjami (2012b) reported in an article the images and metaphors English learners had in mind for vocabulary learning. First, 350 learners in seven cities in Iran with considerable experience of English learning were asked to compare vocabulary learning to concrete objects and activities. Their 130 analogies were reviewed and analyzed multiple times to identify fitting labels and assign inclusive categories. The five most frequent themes which emerged from the analysis were food and drink, collecting, journey, puzzle/problem, and music.
Finally, Farjami (2012c) in another study explored the images and metaphors English language learners hold about grammar learning. To elicit learners’ images, a questionnaire was delivered to 350 adult English learners, including both males and females, with at least one year of serious language learning experience. It demanded the respondents to provide one or more images about learning grammar of EFL. One hundred and thirty-nine completed forms were content-analyzed and specific metaphors were identified and grouped under descriptive rubrics. Next, the specific images were examined and general and conceptually oriented categories were identified.
۲.۲. Teachers’ and Learners’ Roles in the Design of Dominant Language Learning and Teaching Methods
Methods also called designs according to Richards and Rodgers (2001, p. 24) are plans that consider objectives, syllabus and language content, types of learning tasks and teaching activities, learners’ roles, teachers’ roles, and the role of instructional materials for language learning and teaching.
Dominant language learning and teaching approaches and methods have adopted different views to the roles of language learners and teachers and their contributions to language learning and teaching processes in their designs.
According to Richards and Rodgers (2002, p.27); these views are seen in the type of functions and activities teachers and learners carry out or are expected to fulfill, the degree of control teachers and learners have over the content of teaching and learning, the interactional patterns that develop between teachers and learners and so on. Approaches and methods used for language learning and teaching exhibit concerns for teachers’ and learners’ roles.
Language teacher’s role is defined according to Richards and Rodgers (2001, p. 28) as the teacher’s contribution to the process of language learning and teaching as well as a teacher’s status and function in the context of language learning and teaching.
According to Richards and Rodgers (2002, p.28), teachers’ roles are similarly linked to assumptions about language and language learning and teaching. In this way, some methods consider teachers as a source of knowledge and direction; others see the teachers’ role as a catalyst, a counselor, a guide, and a model for learning. For example, in the audio-lingual method, the language teacher is regarded as the primary source of language and of language learning and teaching. In the counseling-leaning method, teacher is likened to a psychologist or a counselor (Larsen-Freeman, p. 32).
According to Richards and Rodgers (2001, p. 27), the language learner’s role is defined as the learner’s contribution to the process of language learning and teaching as well as a learner’s status and function in the context of language learning and teaching.
Language learning and teaching methods and approaches also view the learner as a processor, a performer, an initiator, a problem-solver and so on. For example; in the grammar-translation method, the language teacher is like a knowledgeable authority in an office and the learners are like servants that do what the language teachers say and learn what the teachers know. In the audio-lingual method, limited roles are available to learners. In this method, learners are seen as stimulus-response mechanisms whose learning is a direct result of practice. In the silent way as a language teaching method, the language teacher is like a technician or an engineer. In the community language learning, learners as considered as clients and they have other roles that change developmentally. In this method, genetic and growth metaphors for example a learner is like an embryo or as a child are used to suggest the learners’ roles in the process of language learning and teaching (Richards and Rodgers, 2002; Larsen-Freeman, 2000).
As the above-mentioned examples suggest, the language teachers’ and learners’ roles and their relationships are many and varied. According to Richards and Rodgers (2002, p.29), in some dominant language teaching and learning methods, the assigned and metaphorical roles may be asymmetrical relationships such as a conductor to an orchestra member, a therapist to a patient, a coach to a player. However, in some contemporary methodologies, some symmetrical relationships are established such as friend to friend, colleague to colleague, or teammate to teammate. Therefore, teachers’ and learners’ roles define the type of interaction characteristic of contexts in which a particular method is being used. In addition, the roles of the language teachers and learners reflect different aspects of learning and teaching and the conditions for successful language learning and teaching.
As a whole, the reviews of the previous studies in this regard in different EFL contexts revealed that the main focus of these investigations have been on EFL or ESL learners at academic contexts where students are learning the English language as an academic subject. There was also more attention to EFL or ESL teachers’ beliefs about different dimensions of language education. Using different data collection methods particularly metaphor elicitation sheets and complementary short interviews to obtain learners’ and teachers’ reasons for choosing the metaphors according to Ishiki (2011) was one of the most important features of these studies. This data collection procedure as
منابع منابع و مأخذ ۷۸ منابع انگلیسی ۸۱ پیوست محاسبات آماری ۸۵ پرسشنامه ۹۲ فهرست جداول جدول ۴-۱. توصیف سؤال اول متغیر رضایت مشتری ۶۰ جدول ۴-۲. توصیف سؤال دوم متغیر رضایت مشتری ۶۰ جدول ادامه مطلب…