through metaphor elicitation prompts from 362 language students and teachers and acquired eleven categories: teacher as a guide, an illuminator, an authority, a source of knowledge, a carrier, an integrator, a role model, a molder, an innovator, and an agent of development. In another study, only the list of the metaphors for EFL teacher’s roles was provided and there was no attention to EFL learner’s roles. Furthermore, no attention was paid to the implication of such studies for language education contexts.
In the same research in this context; Saban, Kocbeker, and Saban (2006) studies 1222 teacher candidates, studying English Education and Instructional Technologies, and grouped 111 metaphors into 10 categories: teacher as a knowledge provider, a molder, a curer, a superior authority figure, a change agent, an entertainer, an archetype of spirit, a nurturer, a facilitator, and a cooperative leader. The main purpose of the study was presenting a list of metaphorical images as well as the effect of gender on these concepts. There were no mention of the underlying theories for these beliefs and there was no attention to English language learners as one of the main roles in the EFL learning and teaching context.
In a Malaysian EFL learning and teaching context, Nikitina and Furuoka (2008a) examined metaphors about language teachers’ roles created by a group of 23 Malaysian university students. The aims of the study were to determine whether metaphors produced by language learners in the Asian educational context can fit into the four philosophical perspectives on education outlined by Oxford et al. (1998), and to explore whether students’ gender influences their metaphor production. This study employed both qualitative and quantitative methods of analysis. The results of the content analysis of 27 metaphors produced by the participants showed that Oxford et al.’s (1998) typology of metaphors is applicable in the Malaysian educational context.
In addition, the qualitative analysis revealed that the imagery used in the metaphors is, to some extent, gender-related. However, the results of statistical analysis indicated that there are no statistically significant differences in the perceptions of the teacher’s role between the students of different genders. This study was comprehensive enough and was in agreement with the aims of the present study in which a group of 86 Iranian Kurdish-speaking EFL learners are employed as the participants. The differences between the study conducted by Nikitina and Furuoka (2008a) and the current study were the number and the characteristics of the EFL learners, that is, in the current study the participants were high school students learning EFL educational context. One of the positive aspects of the study conducted by Nikitina and Furuoka (2008a) was the implications of their study to philosophical dimensions, the implications to the design of the language learning and teaching methods as one of the main objectives of the current study was overlook, however.
In a follow-up study, Nikitina and Furuoka (2008b) in another Malaysian EFL learning and teaching setting focused on the student-generated metaphors about language teachers’ roles in EFL classroom environments and employed a quantitative analysis to examine the dimensions around which these metaphors align. A questionnaire containing metaphors about language teachers was distributed to 98 Malaysian students. Factor analysis was employed as a research technique to identify the dimensions along which the students’ perceptions aligned. The findings of the present paper lent support to the previous attempts at metaphor taxonomy by Oxford et al. (1998) and Chen (2003).
Michael and Katerina (2009) in line with other investigations examined the metaphors 156 Greek-speaking in-service teachers to explain their attitudes toward teacher-student roles, language teaching, classroom climate and their beliefs about knowledge of the English language. They employed qualitative research instruments including metaphor elicitation prompts as well as diaries. The findings illustrated that Greek culture and educational system seem to result in the diversity of the chosen metaphors. Furthermore, EFL in-service teachers’ understanding of the metaphors they created and selected could influence and also benefited them since these metaphors had the potential to help teachers analyze their roles and identities.
In the same study, Bagici and Coklar (2010) analyzed 45 obtained metaphors developed by 131 prospective EFL teachers who studied at a Turkish academic context in relation to their roles in use of educational technology. The metaphors were classified under six different categories: being important, useful, assistant, guide, user, producer, designer, learner and attitude. Results revealed that prospective teachers were mostly assumed roles of being important, useful, assistant, guide and user. Another finding of this study was that the metaphors produced by the prospective teachers differed in various departments. This study did not pay attention to assumed roles for EFL learners in the views of EFL teachers and the underlying theories for the choice of metaphorical images were not discussed in detail.
In Cyprus, Kesen (2010a) analyzed language learners’ and teachers’ concepts of an English language teacher through the metaphors they generated. The participants for the present study were 100 English-Language-Teaching (ELT) major learners and 100 EFL teachers. Both the learners and the teachers were randomly chosen from two universities. In order to reveal language learners’ and teachers’ concepts of an English language teacher through the metaphors they generated, EFL teachers were asked to complete the sentence of “An English language teacher is a/an….because…..”. Although this metaphor elicitation prompt was similar to the format of the sentences used in the questionnaires of the present study, the participants were academic-level EFL learners.
Upon the completion of the metaphor elicitation prompt in Kesen’s study (2010a), Cypriote EFL learners as the main participants were interviewed both to clarify the unclear points about the metaphors. In addition, participants were asked to write their thoughts on paper by concentrating on their own metaphors. As for the learners’, the list of the metaphors were given to them and they were asked to choose one metaphor that they believed to best represent an English language teacher’s role in an EFL classroom environment. The obtained data were analyzed and interpreted using the content analysis method. The findings of the study suggested that EFL teachers’ and learners’ concept of a foreign language teacher display both commonalities and differences.
The metaphor elicitation prompt, the complementary short interviews following the completion of the questionnaires as well as the content analysis employed as the data analysis procedure were the characteristics of this study which were highly in agreement with the design of the current study in which Iranian Kurdish-speaking high school-level’ beliefs were elicited through metaphors and analyzed to find the dominant metaphorical themes and their implications.
Erkmen (2010) in another study on metaphorical analysis in Cyprus investigated the beliefs about teaching and learning English of nine non-native novice teachers at a private center, and the extent to which these beliefs changed in their first year of teaching. Data was collected over an academic year of nine months by means of semi-structured interviews, classroom observations, post-lesson reflection forms, stimulated-recall interviews, and diaries. The main focus of the study was highlighting the metaphors employed during this time by novice teachers. Although there was differences between this study and the objectives of the current study, using metaphor elicitation tasks in which participants were prompted to provide and present their beliefs and attitudes to different aspects of language learning and teaching through metaphors were in line with the objectives of our study. The study found that novice teachers’ prior learning experiences were influential in shaping their initial beliefs. However, the findings also showed that the majority of the teachers’ beliefs were re-structured and strengthened, suggesting that beliefs are dynamic.
The dynamic nature of beliefs and the effects of some influential factors including gender, cultural background, previous language learning and teaching experience, language proficiency, other cognitive, affective and socio-economic factors were the highlighted points which can lead to a wide variety of metaphors. Therefore, in the studies in this regard, these factors and the dynamic nature of beliefs should be taken into
منابع منابع و مأخذ ۷۸ منابع انگلیسی ۸۱ پیوست محاسبات آماری ۸۵ پرسشنامه ۹۲ فهرست جداول جدول ۴-۱. توصیف سؤال اول متغیر رضایت مشتری ۶۰ جدول ۴-۲. توصیف سؤال دوم متغیر رضایت مشتری ۶۰ جدول ادامه مطلب…