دانلود مقاله با موضوع the، and، a، an

afraid of our EFL teacher. I don’t like my English teacher because I think she is not a human like us. She comes from a strange place which is far from our country.
Another category of concepts and frequent themes (10.69%) produced via metaphor elicitation questionnaires and short interviews by Iranian Kurdish-speaking EFL participants were in contrast with the afore-mentioned category. The metaphorical conceptualizations in this group thematically named “EFL teacher as an angel” included images such as a kind person, a charitable person, an angel, the best human being, a beautiful angel, and a very nice individual. That is the participants of this study view an EFL teacher as an individual who has the best personal and social qualities. The entailments for this category were that an EFL teacher is a kind person who gives kindness and goodness to al language learners; an EFL teacher is a tolerant person who speaks kindly to help learners; and an EFL teacher is a heavenly angel who gives lots of gifts to the learners. EFL teacher as an angel shows the fact that the participants of this study believe in an EFL teacher as a kind, caring, and angel-like person in an EFL classroom. A sample quotation from the metaphor elicitation questionnaires and the short interviews for the theme “EFL teacher as an angel” are as follow:
Sample 4. Quotation from the metaphor elicitation questionnaire and the translation of the short interview for Participants No. 53 and No 69, respectively
Questionnaire
Participant No. 53:
Statement A: “An English language teacher is like a kind angel.
Reason A: because she is beautiful and she gives kindness and love to all learners.
Short Interview
Participant No. 69:
An EFL teacher is like an angel. We love other EFL teacher. She is very attractive and smart. She pays attention to all the students in the classroom and tries to be fair with all the students in the classroom. I like my EFL teacher very much. She is a really affectionate person.
The fifth and the sixth metaphorical groups of images pictured by Iranian Kurdish-speaking high school students entitled as “EFL teacher as a care-giver” (۹.۶۲%) and “EFL teacher as a natural element” (۸.۶۴%) included metaphorical concepts such as parents, dad, father, mother, uncle, aunt, guard, friend and sun, rain, star, mountain, water, ocean, sea, river respectively. That is, the participants of the present study view their EFL teachers as someone who gives them enough care and attention. Similarly, the metaphors under the thematic group of natural elements show the fact that the Iranian EFL learners in the present study believe that an EFL teacher is like one of the natural elements. The entailments for the former category pictured that an EFL teacher is like a dad who tries hard to manage our lives and takes cares of his children; an EFL teacher is like a mother who takes care of her children; and an EFL teacher is like a mother who does her best to bring up the best language learners. The reasons expressed by EFL learners for the latter category illustrating EFL teachers in the form of natural elements were that an EFL teacher is like sun that shines and gives energy and growth to everything; an EFL teacher is like water that is vital in learning English; and an EFL teacher is a mountain that stands in front of problems and gives the best gifts to us. Two sample quotations from the metaphor elicitation questionnaires and the short interviews for the themes “EFL teacher as a care-giver” as well as “EFL teacher as a natural element” are as follow:
Sample 5. Quotation from the metaphor elicitation questionnaire and the translation of the short interview for Participants No. 5 and No 40, respectively
Questionnaire
Participant No. 5:
Statement A: “An English language teacher is like a nurse.
Reason A: because she is very kind and takes care of all learners to become better and better language learners.
Short Interview
Participant No. 40:
An EFL teacher is like a best friend. He is very helpful and he pays attention to all the problems of your life. He knows you very well and tries to help you in difficult situations. Sometimes, he tries to praise you for your good job and sometimes he tries to show you how to find solutions.
Sample 6. Quotation from the metaphor elicitation questionnaire and the translation of the short interview for Participants No. 28 and No 19, respectively
Questionnaire

دانلود مقاله با موضوع the، and، a، of

same way as the data obtained from the elicitation sheets. In the next chapter, Chapter 4, the results of the study are presented and discussed.
Chapter 4:
Results and Discussion
۴.۱. Results
To elicit Iranian high school students’ beliefs and views about English language learners’ and teachers’ roles via metaphors, in this section, the main findings of the present study are presented. That is, first, the results of the study are described in detail in two subsections including metaphors about EFL teachers’ roles and metaphors about EFL learners’ roles. Then, the results of the study are presented in sum.
The present qualitative study does a metaphor analysis about the beliefs of Iranian Kurdish-speaking high school students learning English as their third language. This study will focus on the analysis of the metaphors about the English language teacher’s role and the English language learner’s role produced by the Iranian Kurdish-speaking high school students.
To do so, the data obtained from the administration a self-designed open-ended metaphor questionnaire and a self-instructed short interview following other studies in the field of metaphor analysis produced by language learners ( for example, Nikitina & Furuoka, 2008; Pishghadam and Navari, 2010; Wan, Low & Lee, 2011; Huang, 2011; Ahkemoglu, 2011).
Generally, analysis of the results revealed different manifestations of Iranian bilingual EFL learners’ beliefs about two important aspects of language learning and teaching that is language teacher’s roles and language learner’s roles in this study.
۴.۱.۱. Metaphors about EFL Teachers’ Roles
The analysis of metaphors elicited from Iranian Kurdish-speaking EFL learners about the role of an English language teacher including the themes and the metaphors under each theme can be seen in Table 1 below.
Table 4.1. Metaphors developed by Iranian Kurdish-speaking EFL learners for the concept of an English language teacher
Theme
Metaphors
Frequency
% Percent
EFL teacher as a guide
coach, director, manager, president, book, guidebook, cooking book, dictionary, police officer, foreman
۲۳
۲۶.۷۴
EFL teacher as an expert
genius, mastermind, expert, skillful person, professional, scientist, inventor, professor
۱۹
۲۲.۰۹
EFL teacher as a monster
non-human, killer, monster, stranger, devil, alien, a strange being, dragon
۱۲
۱۳.۹۵
EFL teacher as an angel
kind person, charitable person, angel, the best human being, beautiful angel, a very nice individual
۱۰
۱۱.۶۲
EFL teacher as a care-giver
dad, father, mother, uncle, aunt, guard, friend
۸
۹.۳۰
EFL teacher as a natural element
sun, rain, star, mountain, water, ocean, sea, river
۷
۸.۱۳
EFL teacher as an instrument
robot, talking machine, translating machine, computer, cell phone, television, radio
۴
۴.۶۵
EFL teacher as a creator
artist, builder, maker
۳
۳.۴۸
Eight groups of metaphorical themes were obtained out of the metaphorical images and their entailments provided by the participants of the current study. The metaphors about EFL teachers’ roles produced by Iranian Kurdish-speaking high school students with their frequency and entailments were comprised of themes such as “EFL teacher as a guide”, “ EFL teacher as an expert”, “EFL teacher as a monster”, “EFL teacher as an angel”, “EFL teacher as a care-giver”, “EFL teacher as a natural element”, “EFL teacher as an instrument”, “EFL teacher as a creator”; and finally “EFL teacher as a bore”.
The above-mentioned metaphorical images and themes about EFL teachers’ roles are described in detail with several examples elicited from the translation of the metaphor questionnaires and short interviews as follows:
The first and the highest group of themes elicited from the content analysis of metaphor questionnaires and transcription as well as translation of complementary short interviews with the highest number of images (26.73%) was summarized thematically into “EFL teacher as a guide” combined out of several metaphors such as coach, director, manager, president, book, guidebook, cooking book, dictionary, police officer and foreman. That is, participants of the present study believe that an EFL teacher is like a guide. The rationales they give for the choice of these specific metaphors and figurative images were that an EFL teacher is like a guidebook that helps us to learn speaking in a new language; an EFL teacher is like a manager who directs us to the best strategies of doing tasks; and an EFL teacher is like police officer who guides us to correct mistakes and reach for our targets. EFL teacher as a guide reveals the fact that participants believe in the guiding role of an EFL teacher. A sample quotation from the metaphor elicitation questionnaires and the short interviews for the theme “EFL teacher as a guide” are as follow:
Sample 1. Quotation from the metaphor elicitation questionnaire and the translation of the short interview for Participants No. 27 and No 41, respectively
Questionnaire
Participant No. 27:
Statement A: “An English language teacher is like a police officer.
Reason A: because he controls everything in the classroom and tries to show the best directions.
Short Interview
Participant No. 41:
An EFL teacher is like a manager. A manager in a company. He controls everybody and tries to supervise people who work there. An EFL teacher manages the class like a company. My EFL teacher is a good manager.
The second category of metaphorical concepts with the highest number of images (20.32%) for EFL teachers’ roles were grouped into the theme “EFL teacher as an expert” composed of metaphors such as genius, mastermind, expert, skillful person, professional, scientist, inventor and professor. That is, the Iranian Kurdish-speaking high school students learning EFL believe that an EFL teacher is someone who is very good at English as knowledgeable as an expert or a professional. The reasons they provide for these specific metaphors were that an EFL teacher is like a skillful and professional person who has enough knowledge about different aspects of English; an EFL teacher is a brainy man who plans everything in English; and an EFL teacher is a skillful person who invents different strange things. EFL teacher as an expert shows that participant of the current study believe in the professional role of an EFL teacher in the context of learning and teaching EFL. A sample quotation from the metaphor elicitation questionnaires and the short interviews for the theme “EFL teacher as an expert” are as follow:
Sample 2. Quotation from the metaphor elicitation questionnaire and the translation of the short interview for Participants No. 7 and No 31, respectively
Questionnaire
Participant No. 7:
Statement A: “An English language teacher is like a scientist.
Reason A: because she knows about the science of language and she is very good at everything about English.
Short Interview
Participant No. 31:
An EFL teacher is like a genius. He knows about different words and texts. He knows the meanings of all the words in Persian and in English. He can easily write and read in English. He is very skillful. He is more skillful than students. I wish I could speak like an EFL teacher.
The third group of metaphorical images (17.11%) was entitled as “EFL teacher as a monster” comprised of metaphorical images such as a non-human, killer, monster, stranger, devil, alien, a strange being and dragon. Using such metaphorical images shows that the participants of the present study look at their EFL teachers as something or someone frightening that is a main cause of fear and anxiety. The reasons which are presented for this category of metaphors were that an EFL teacher is a stranger who tortures language learners; an EFL teacher is a dangerous creature that has come from another planet with a disgusting language; and an EFL teacher is a frightening creature that hurts and kills the innocent learners. EFL teacher as a monster provides the fact that the participants of this study believe in the harmful and terrifying role of an EFL teacher in an EFL classroom. A sample quotation from the metaphor elicitation questionnaires and the short interviews for the theme “EFL teacher as a monster” are as follow:
Sample 3. Quotation from the metaphor elicitation questionnaire and the translation of the short interview for Participants No. 20 and No 76, respectively
Questionnaire
Participant No. 20:
Statement A: “An English language teacher is like an alien.
Reason A: because she speaks with a strange language we do not know about.
Short Interview
Participant No. 76:
An EFL teacher is like a monster. My classmate and I cannot understand her horrible speech in English. We are

دانلود مقاله با موضوع the، and، of، language

well as content analysis employed in the previous studies was in agreement with the design of our investigation into Iranian Kurdish-speaking EFL learners’ beliefs about the roles assigned to language learners and language teachers in EFL educational contexts.
In addition, the review of the few studies on Iranian EFL learners’ and teachers’ beliefs about different aspects of language learning and teaching revealed the fact that there is a need to do studies on students learning English at Iranian high school contexts especially in local areas where there are bilingual students learning English as a third language and as a school subject is overlooked.
Except for the studies by Nikitina and Furuoka (2008 a, b) in which the metaphorical images provided by Malaysian EFL learners were associated with philosophical views, no other study paid attention to the implications of the metaphors used by EFL learners and teachers to the roles assigned to language learners’ and language teachers’ roles in the design of language learning and teaching methods. Therefore, the current study aims to fill this gap in the related literature.
Therefore, the present study is to investigate the beliefs of Iranian Kurdish-speaking high school students’ beliefs about language learning and teaching in a context where the English language is taught as a foreign language and a school subject by the educational system. The main focus is on the roles of language learners and teachers as two crucial factors in the development of language learning and teaching. This study in addition aims to compare the metaphors highlighted in leaners’ metaphors with the roles assigned to language learners and language teachers in the design of the most important language learning and teaching methods. To this end, in the next section, language teachers’ and language learners’ roles in the design of dominant language learning and teaching methods are summarized according to the guidelines provided by Larsen-Freeman (2000) Richards and Rodgers (2002).
In the following chapter, Chapter 3, the methodology of the present study is presented.
Chapter 3:
Methodology
۳.۱. Methodology
To elicit Iranian Kurdish-speaking high school students’ beliefs and views about language learning and teaching by use of metaphors, in this section, the methodological perspective of the present study is given. That is, the participants, the instruments used to collect the required data, the design of the study, and the procedure for both data collection and data analysis are described.
۳.۱.۱. Participants
The participants for the present study were 86 Iranian Kurdish-speaking high school students in different grades and majors in Ilam on the west of Iran. The participants were all chosen from the bilingual (Kurdish-Persian) population of students who were taking English as a third language course and as a study subject at high school level. Following other studies (for example, Nikitina & Furuoka, 2008; Pishghadam and Navari, 2010; Wan, Low & Lee, 2011; Huang, 2011; Ahkemoglu, 2011), convenient sampling (Dornyei, 2007, p. 98) was used for selecting the participants of this study. Participation was on a voluntary basis although all the participants were screened out regarding their history of bilingualism to meet the requirements and validity of the study. In terms of age, they were between 13 to 15 years old.
۳.۱.۲. Instruments
In this study, a qualitative data collection instrument was used. It was a self-designed open-ended metaphor elicitation questionnaire (See Appendix A and B) taken, modified and translated from previous studies (Nikitina & Furuoka, 2008; Huang, 2011; Ahkemoglu, 2011) and adapted by the researcher for the present context.
The questionnaire had two parts. In the first part, participants completed some personal information questions such as their gender, high school major, high school grade, and age. In the second part, participants completed statements such as “An English language teacher is a/an . . . . . . . . because . . . . . . . . .” and “An English language learner is a/an . . . . . . . . . because . . . . . . . . .”. It should be noted that the metaphor elicitation sheet was in written in the second language of the high school students as their formal and educational language. The participants were free to use their second language as the formal and educational language used in this context in developing their metaphors if they wished to as it was believed that using the English might cause some learners to have difficulty in generating metaphors and expressing themselves in the correct way (Nikitina & Furuoka, 2008; Pishghadam and Navari, 2010; Wan, Low & Lee, 2011; Huang, 2011).
Another instrument for data collection was the short semi-structured interviews. The purpose of conducting interviews was to clarify the points that seemed unclear to the researcher (Ahkemoglu, 2011, p.22). The interviews were also utilized to triangulate the data collection process. The reason for using semi-structured interviews was that they give the interviewee a degree of power and control over the course of the interview and a great flexibility to the interviewer.
۳.۱.۳. Design of the Study
In order to investigate Iranian high school students’ beliefs about language teacher’s and learner’s roles in an EFL context via metaphors; following other studies in this field (for example, Nikitina & Furuoka, 2008; Pishghadam and Navari, 2010; Wan, Low & Lee, 2011; Huang, 2011; Ahkemoglu, 2011), the present study adopted a qualitative data collection design. The qualitative data were collected through metaphor elicitation method and short semi-structured interviews with the learners. The reason for using two methods of data collection was to achieve triangulation of the data and to clarify the points that might seem unclear (Farjami, 2012; Ahkemoglu, 2011, p.19). The metaphors generated by learners were described, categorized, compared and analyzed by means of content analysis since data format was textual not numerical (Wan et al., 2011). The short semi-structured interviews were transcribed and coded for further content analysis. The reason for utilizing this method was that the concepts and ideas that are not noticeable using the descriptive and quantitative approaches may be seen by using content analysis (Yildirim and Simsek, 2011; Pishghadam & Navari, 2011; Ahkemoglu, 2011, p.20).
۳.۱.۴. Procedure of Data Collection and Analysis
To elicit Iranian bilingual EFL learners’ beliefs about two important aspects of language learning and teaching that is language teacher’s roles and language learner’s roles in this study, the required data were collected through a self-designed open-ended metaphor questionnaire and a self-instructed short interview following other studies in the field of metaphor analysis produced by language learners ( for example, Nikitina & Furuoka, 2008; Pishghadam and Navari, 2010; Wan, Low & Lee, 2011; Huang, 2011; Ahkemoglu, 2011).
First of all, teachers at randomly selected high schools were informed about the design of the present study. Then metaphor elicitation sheets in English and Persian were given to all participants during their English course classrooms at the middle of the educational year 2014. The participants were told that their participation was entirely voluntary and that their responses would remain anonymous and that confidentiality would be maintained.
All participants were asked to complete both parts of the questionnaire, the personal information and the statements about an English language teacher and an English language learner as well as their reasons for their written metaphors. The participants were free to use their mother tongue (Kurdish) or their second formal language (Farsi) and even English in writing the metaphors in the metaphor elicitation sheets as it was believed that using selected language by the researcher might cause some learners to have difficulty in generating metaphors and expressing themselves in the correct way. There was no limitation regarding the time used for writing and clarifying the metaphors. After the sheets were collected and read by the researcher each participant was interviewed to gain more in-depth responses from the participants.
The obtained data were analyzed by content analysis following other studies (for example, Ahkemoglu, 2011, p.22; Nikitina & Furuoka, 2008; Pishghadam & Navari, 2010; Wan, Low & Lee, 2011; Huang, 2011). The metaphors produced by students were coded and categorized. Then the most important and dominant metaphors were classified in different categories. All the short interviews were also tape recorded and then translated into English and analyzed by the researcher in the

دانلود مقاله با موضوع and، the، of، a

(۲۰۰۹), through metaphor analysis got deep detailed insights into English language teaching and learning process. They first explored teaching, learning, and learner roles as entailed by the metaphors that were elicited from the participants categorized in the nine conceptual metaphors of a provider of knowledge, a friend, an organizer, a nurturer, a spiritual leader, a parent, an entertainer, a counselor, and an innovator. They also took into account the metaphors mentioned by male and female teachers separately. Then, they examined learners’ beliefs about teachers. Finally, they investigated to what extent teachers’ beliefs conformed to their practice through enquiring their learners.
Among the most recent studies are investigation by Pishghadam and Pourali (2011a; 2011b). In their first study, they used metaphor analysis as an indirect tool of delving into individuals’ beliefs and explored the use of metaphor to express the various perspectives of 50 Persian-speaking M.A. Iranian university students about the process of learning and teaching English as a second language. The focus of their study was on the EFL learning and teaching process and particularly the EFL teachers’ and leaners’ roles. This was in agreement with the objectives of our study although the participants were only limited to academic-level Persian-speaking EFL learners. Pishghadam and Pourali (1011a) collected the metaphors the students created by using the prompts “An English university student is/should be like a…” and “An English university professor is/should be like a…”, and then they identified and analyzed the metaphors. The results demonstrated that Iranian M.A. university students have different conceptions of English learning and teaching, wishing to form the bedrock of their teaching and learning paradigm based on situative learning concepts.
Following this study, in their second study, Pishghadam and Pourali (2011b) employed metaphor analysis and explored the nature of unconscious beliefs of 22 Iranian Persian-speaking Ph.D students. The results of this study revealed that Ph.D university students concur with forming the foundation of learning and teaching based on situative learning concepts.
In a series of studies on the beliefs of Iranian EFL learners, Farjami (2012a) in a metaphorical analysis, elicited images which learners hold about foreign language learning. To this end, a questionnaire was given to 350 learners of English in different places in Iran. The questionnaire asked the respondents to provide images about learning a foreign language by using a sentence completion task: “Learning a foreign language is like ………..” The responses gained in 200 questionnaires were content-analyzed and the identified images and metaphors were summarized under more broad-ranging categories.
In a follow-up study, Farjami (2012b) reported in an article the images and metaphors English learners had in mind for vocabulary learning. First, 350 learners in seven cities in Iran with considerable experience of English learning were asked to compare vocabulary learning to concrete objects and activities. Their 130 analogies were reviewed and analyzed multiple times to identify fitting labels and assign inclusive categories. The five most frequent themes which emerged from the analysis were food and drink, collecting, journey, puzzle/problem, and music.
Finally, Farjami (2012c) in another study explored the images and metaphors English language learners hold about grammar learning. To elicit learners’ images, a questionnaire was delivered to 350 adult English learners, including both males and females, with at least one year of serious language learning experience. It demanded the respondents to provide one or more images about learning grammar of EFL. One hundred and thirty-nine completed forms were content-analyzed and specific metaphors were identified and grouped under descriptive rubrics. Next, the specific images were examined and general and conceptually oriented categories were identified.
۲.۲. Teachers’ and Learners’ Roles in the Design of Dominant Language Learning and Teaching Methods
Methods also called designs according to Richards and Rodgers (2001, p. 24) are plans that consider objectives, syllabus and language content, types of learning tasks and teaching activities, learners’ roles, teachers’ roles, and the role of instructional materials for language learning and teaching.
Dominant language learning and teaching approaches and methods have adopted different views to the roles of language learners and teachers and their contributions to language learning and teaching processes in their designs.
According to Richards and Rodgers (2002, p.27); these views are seen in the type of functions and activities teachers and learners carry out or are expected to fulfill, the degree of control teachers and learners have over the content of teaching and learning, the interactional patterns that develop between teachers and learners and so on. Approaches and methods used for language learning and teaching exhibit concerns for teachers’ and learners’ roles.
Language teacher’s role is defined according to Richards and Rodgers (2001, p. 28) as the teacher’s contribution to the process of language learning and teaching as well as a teacher’s status and function in the context of language learning and teaching.
According to Richards and Rodgers (2002, p.28), teachers’ roles are similarly linked to assumptions about language and language learning and teaching. In this way, some methods consider teachers as a source of knowledge and direction; others see the teachers’ role as a catalyst, a counselor, a guide, and a model for learning. For example, in the audio-lingual method, the language teacher is regarded as the primary source of language and of language learning and teaching. In the counseling-leaning method, teacher is likened to a psychologist or a counselor (Larsen-Freeman, p. 32).
According to Richards and Rodgers (2001, p. 27), the language learner’s role is defined as the learner’s contribution to the process of language learning and teaching as well as a learner’s status and function in the context of language learning and teaching.
Language learning and teaching methods and approaches also view the learner as a processor, a performer, an initiator, a problem-solver and so on. For example; in the grammar-translation method, the language teacher is like a knowledgeable authority in an office and the learners are like servants that do what the language teachers say and learn what the teachers know. In the audio-lingual method, limited roles are available to learners. In this method, learners are seen as stimulus-response mechanisms whose learning is a direct result of practice. In the silent way as a language teaching method, the language teacher is like a technician or an engineer. In the community language learning, learners as considered as clients and they have other roles that change developmentally. In this method, genetic and growth metaphors for example a learner is like an embryo or as a child are used to suggest the learners’ roles in the process of language learning and teaching (Richards and Rodgers, 2002; Larsen-Freeman, 2000).
As the above-mentioned examples suggest, the language teachers’ and learners’ roles and their relationships are many and varied. According to Richards and Rodgers (2002, p.29), in some dominant language teaching and learning methods, the assigned and metaphorical roles may be asymmetrical relationships such as a conductor to an orchestra member, a therapist to a patient, a coach to a player. However, in some contemporary methodologies, some symmetrical relationships are established such as friend to friend, colleague to colleague, or teammate to teammate. Therefore, teachers’ and learners’ roles define the type of interaction characteristic of contexts in which a particular method is being used. In addition, the roles of the language teachers and learners reflect different aspects of learning and teaching and the conditions for successful language learning and teaching.
As a whole, the reviews of the previous studies in this regard in different EFL contexts revealed that the main focus of these investigations have been on EFL or ESL learners at academic contexts where students are learning the English language as an academic subject. There was also more attention to EFL or ESL teachers’ beliefs about different dimensions of language education. Using different data collection methods particularly metaphor elicitation sheets and complementary short interviews to obtain learners’ and teachers’ reasons for choosing the metaphors according to Ishiki (2011) was one of the most important features of these studies. This data collection procedure as

دانلود مقاله با موضوع the، of، and، metaphors

account.
Ahkemoglu (2011) in another study in a Turkish EFL learning and teaching context investigated the conceptual metaphors of both ELT-major and non-ELT-major learners in regard to their perceptions of an English language teacher. The roles assigned to English language learners were not considered in this study. In addition, the study searched into the similarities and/or discrepancies between ELT-major learners and non-ELT major learners in how they perceive an English language teacher. Data were collected through metaphor elicitation sheet, semi-structured interviews, and personal essays. Both qualitative and quantitative methods of analysis were used. Personal metaphors were analyzed and the main conceptual themes were identified. The main results of the study indicated that while some metaphors were peculiar to English language teacher such as an oracle, a schizophrenic, and a gum, some metaphors seemed to be common with the ones developed for the concept of a teacher such as a light, a guide, and a bridge.
This study had positive and negative dimensions. Using non-English-major learners was one of the main positive aspects of this study in line with the characteristics of the participants in our investigation. Employing metaphor elicitation sheets as well as complementary semi-structured interviews were also similar to the design of our study. This study had two negative aspects including concentration on academic-level EFL learners and lack of attention to the roles of EFL learners in the language learning and teaching context.
In a study on Japanese EFL learners beliefs about the various aspects of language learning and teaching, Ishiki (2011) examined the use and analysis of Japanese students’ metaphors in an EFL setting. This study highlighted how students’ metaphors on the English language learning changes over time as their proficiency improved. The participants were 14 college-level students who were enrolled in an international business program. Students’ metaphors were collected two times throughout the semester with participant observation and interviews in order to better understand their rationales behind. This procedure of data collection and data analysis, that is, using metaphor elicitation and complementary structured short interviews were similar to our investigation into students’ beliefs in an Iranian EFL context. The results of the Ishiki’s study revealed that learners did not change their metaphors whereas their level of proficiency developed, and students’ imagined self had a great impact upon their metaphors as it served as a driving force to master English.
Huang (2011) in another study emphasized how the metaphor can be influential on language learner identity particularly second language learning and what effects can be brought about from the metaphor in a Taiwanese ESL context. This study investigated the EFL learning among thirty-five non-English-major freshmen from Taiwan, with a variety of backgrounds ranging from departments of academic contexts. The students’ English learning process was elicited through metaphors, and then the influences that these metaphors had on their language learning identity particularly second language learning identity was examined.
In a research into EFL teachers’ and students’ beliefs about the roles assigned to an EFL teacher; Wan, Low, and Li (2011) provided a report on how a group of Chinese university teachers and two groups of their English-major students used personal teacher-related metaphors via a metaphor prompt “An English teacher is ……….because ……….”. One of the overlooked aspects of this study was lack of attention to metaphors about EFL learners’ roles. Data sources for this study also included follow-up individual interviews. The primary aims of the study were to examine the effects of metaphor analysis concerning beliefs about classroom teachers’ roles between teachers and students, including comparing accounts by students at different levels of English proficiency and to establish whether the use of metaphor analysis involving teachers and students with a degree of interaction between them led to behavioral change, particularly change in teaching practices. The results identified mismatches regarding the interpretations of teachers’ roles both between students and teachers and between student groups at different levels of English proficiency.
One of the other studies on the beliefs of the English language teachers and learners about the different aspects of language learning and teaching is a study by Karadag and Gultekin (2012) in a Turkish EFL context. In their metaphorical study they investigated metaphors that 567 elementary school students used in order to describe the term English language teacher. The data were collected using a questionnaire consisting of open-ended questions, and analyzed using qualitative and quantitative analysis techniques. Content analysis technique was used in the analysis of qualitative data, and Chi-square was used in quantitative data analysis. According to the results of the study, it was found out that 83 valid metaphors were produced by 429 elementary school students. These metaphors were collected under 6 conceptual headings according to their common features. The obtained metaphors were also investigated in terms of several factors. It was observed that the conceptual categories formed related to the metaphors that elementary school students use have no significant difference according to gender and school levels, but have significant differences related to their classroom levels. This study did not discussed in detail about the metaphorical concepts and their implications for EFL education contexts.
Lin, Shein, and Yang (2012) in a Taiwanese EFL context employed metaphorical analysis to investigate how pre-service teachers view EFL courses at the beginning of their teacher education programs. To this end, forty student teachers in a teacher certificate program in secondary education were asked to provide metaphors of how they conceptualized themselves as EFL teachers. Findings revealed that the teachers’ metaphorical conceptualizations appeared to be more student-centered, reflecting beliefs about teaching practice and generally stemming from personal and school experiences. Overall, the written metaphors provided access to pre-service teachers’ preconceived notions of teaching prior to entering the classroom.
Studies on language learners’ and language teachers’ beliefs about the different aspects of language learning and teaching are not limited to non-Iranian EFL or ESL settings; rather there have been a few recently published investigations on the exploration of Iranian EFL learners and teachers via metaphors.
Pishghadam, Fatemi, Akbarzadeh Torghabeh, and Navari (2008) focused on the assorted ways Iranian language learners view their language educational system and the impact of these views on their success in learning a foreign language. Language learners’ beliefs were elicited via metaphors about their teachers, the teaching process and how they viewed themselves as learners. This orientation was in line with the objectives of our study particularly in terms of considering EFL teachers’ and learner’s roles. Then, the analysis and categorization of these metaphors based on Martinez, Sauleda, and Huber’s taxonomy (2001) of metaphors revealed the kinds of learning principles which seemed to be more favorable to learners than others. Results of the analysis of the metaphors showed that the public school learners mostly attribute their level of failure in language learning to the behavioristic methods in their classes; while the private school learners attribute their apparent success to the cognitive style of learning. This study had a significant characteristic that is it related the metaphors produced by school-level EFL learners to language learning principles.
Pishghadam and Navari (2008) in the same investigation examined the metaphors created by two groups of language learners in Iranian high schools (Formal context) and private language institutes (informal context). To this end, 50 language learners at schools and 50 at language institutes in Mashhad, Iran received two checklists of 27 metaphors about teachers and 18 metaphors about learners. Learners were required to select the metaphors which truly conceptualized their perceptions of the English educational system in Iran. Their metaphors were categorized based on the taxonomy developed by the scholars in the field. The results highlighted remarkable differences in schools and language institutes, emphasizing the language institute learners’ superiority in their perception of English education.
In another study in an Iranian EFL context, Askarzadeh Torghabeh, Elahi and Khanalipour

دانلود مقاله با موضوع the، of، and، a

through metaphor elicitation prompts from 362 language students and teachers and acquired eleven categories: teacher as a guide, an illuminator, an authority, a source of knowledge, a carrier, an integrator, a role model, a molder, an innovator, and an agent of development. In another study, only the list of the metaphors for EFL teacher’s roles was provided and there was no attention to EFL learner’s roles. Furthermore, no attention was paid to the implication of such studies for language education contexts.
In the same research in this context; Saban, Kocbeker, and Saban (2006) studies 1222 teacher candidates, studying English Education and Instructional Technologies, and grouped 111 metaphors into 10 categories: teacher as a knowledge provider, a molder, a curer, a superior authority figure, a change agent, an entertainer, an archetype of spirit, a nurturer, a facilitator, and a cooperative leader. The main purpose of the study was presenting a list of metaphorical images as well as the effect of gender on these concepts. There were no mention of the underlying theories for these beliefs and there was no attention to English language learners as one of the main roles in the EFL learning and teaching context.
In a Malaysian EFL learning and teaching context, Nikitina and Furuoka (2008a) examined metaphors about language teachers’ roles created by a group of 23 Malaysian university students. The aims of the study were to determine whether metaphors produced by language learners in the Asian educational context can fit into the four philosophical perspectives on education outlined by Oxford et al. (1998), and to explore whether students’ gender influences their metaphor production. This study employed both qualitative and quantitative methods of analysis. The results of the content analysis of 27 metaphors produced by the participants showed that Oxford et al.’s (1998) typology of metaphors is applicable in the Malaysian educational context.
In addition, the qualitative analysis revealed that the imagery used in the metaphors is, to some extent, gender-related. However, the results of statistical analysis indicated that there are no statistically significant differences in the perceptions of the teacher’s role between the students of different genders. This study was comprehensive enough and was in agreement with the aims of the present study in which a group of 86 Iranian Kurdish-speaking EFL learners are employed as the participants. The differences between the study conducted by Nikitina and Furuoka (2008a) and the current study were the number and the characteristics of the EFL learners, that is, in the current study the participants were high school students learning EFL educational context. One of the positive aspects of the study conducted by Nikitina and Furuoka (2008a) was the implications of their study to philosophical dimensions, the implications to the design of the language learning and teaching methods as one of the main objectives of the current study was overlook, however.
In a follow-up study, Nikitina and Furuoka (2008b) in another Malaysian EFL learning and teaching setting focused on the student-generated metaphors about language teachers’ roles in EFL classroom environments and employed a quantitative analysis to examine the dimensions around which these metaphors align. A questionnaire containing metaphors about language teachers was distributed to 98 Malaysian students. Factor analysis was employed as a research technique to identify the dimensions along which the students’ perceptions aligned. The findings of the present paper lent support to the previous attempts at metaphor taxonomy by Oxford et al. (1998) and Chen (2003).
Michael and Katerina (2009) in line with other investigations examined the metaphors 156 Greek-speaking in-service teachers to explain their attitudes toward teacher-student roles, language teaching, classroom climate and their beliefs about knowledge of the English language. They employed qualitative research instruments including metaphor elicitation prompts as well as diaries. The findings illustrated that Greek culture and educational system seem to result in the diversity of the chosen metaphors. Furthermore, EFL in-service teachers’ understanding of the metaphors they created and selected could influence and also benefited them since these metaphors had the potential to help teachers analyze their roles and identities.
In the same study, Bagici and Coklar (2010) analyzed 45 obtained metaphors developed by 131 prospective EFL teachers who studied at a Turkish academic context in relation to their roles in use of educational technology. The metaphors were classified under six different categories: being important, useful, assistant, guide, user, producer, designer, learner and attitude. Results revealed that prospective teachers were mostly assumed roles of being important, useful, assistant, guide and user. Another finding of this study was that the metaphors produced by the prospective teachers differed in various departments. This study did not pay attention to assumed roles for EFL learners in the views of EFL teachers and the underlying theories for the choice of metaphorical images were not discussed in detail.
In Cyprus, Kesen (2010a) analyzed language learners’ and teachers’ concepts of an English language teacher through the metaphors they generated. The participants for the present study were 100 English-Language-Teaching (ELT) major learners and 100 EFL teachers. Both the learners and the teachers were randomly chosen from two universities. In order to reveal language learners’ and teachers’ concepts of an English language teacher through the metaphors they generated, EFL teachers were asked to complete the sentence of “An English language teacher is a/an….because…..”. Although this metaphor elicitation prompt was similar to the format of the sentences used in the questionnaires of the present study, the participants were academic-level EFL learners.
Upon the completion of the metaphor elicitation prompt in Kesen’s study (2010a), Cypriote EFL learners as the main participants were interviewed both to clarify the unclear points about the metaphors. In addition, participants were asked to write their thoughts on paper by concentrating on their own metaphors. As for the learners’, the list of the metaphors were given to them and they were asked to choose one metaphor that they believed to best represent an English language teacher’s role in an EFL classroom environment. The obtained data were analyzed and interpreted using the content analysis method. The findings of the study suggested that EFL teachers’ and learners’ concept of a foreign language teacher display both commonalities and differences.
The metaphor elicitation prompt, the complementary short interviews following the completion of the questionnaires as well as the content analysis employed as the data analysis procedure were the characteristics of this study which were highly in agreement with the design of the current study in which Iranian Kurdish-speaking high school-level’ beliefs were elicited through metaphors and analyzed to find the dominant metaphorical themes and their implications.
Erkmen (2010) in another study on metaphorical analysis in Cyprus investigated the beliefs about teaching and learning English of nine non-native novice teachers at a private center, and the extent to which these beliefs changed in their first year of teaching. Data was collected over an academic year of nine months by means of semi-structured interviews, classroom observations, post-lesson reflection forms, stimulated-recall interviews, and diaries. The main focus of the study was highlighting the metaphors employed during this time by novice teachers. Although there was differences between this study and the objectives of the current study, using metaphor elicitation tasks in which participants were prompted to provide and present their beliefs and attitudes to different aspects of language learning and teaching through metaphors were in line with the objectives of our study. The study found that novice teachers’ prior learning experiences were influential in shaping their initial beliefs. However, the findings also showed that the majority of the teachers’ beliefs were re-structured and strengthened, suggesting that beliefs are dynamic.
The dynamic nature of beliefs and the effects of some influential factors including gender, cultural background, previous language learning and teaching experience, language proficiency, other cognitive, affective and socio-economic factors were the highlighted points which can lead to a wide variety of metaphors. Therefore, in the studies in this regard, these factors and the dynamic nature of beliefs should be taken into

دانلود مقاله با موضوع and، the، of، a

perspectives is presented; then a review of studies on beliefs about language learning and teaching through the recently used instrument of metaphor elicitation in different EFL settings in the world including Iran is provided; afterwards a review of the roles assigned to language learners and teachers in the design of the dominant language learning and teaching methods is presented; and finally a conclusion about the need to conduct the present study and to fill the gap in the related literature is offered. It should be noted that, in the present review, only those studies that were directly relevant to the main concerns of the current study were considered.
۲.۱.۱. The Conceptual Framework of Metaphor
Metaphor is traditionally defined as a device for seeing something in terms of something else (Cameron & Low, 1999, p. 78). According to a definition provided by Lakoff and Johnson (2003) in the Dictionary of Merriam-Webster encyclopedia (2014), metaphor as an important term in the present thesis is “a word or phrase for one thing that is used to refer to another thing in order to show or suggest that they are similar”. As well, according to Lakoff and Johnson (2003, p. 158), in all aspects of life, realities are defined in terms of metaphors and then proceed to act on the basis of the metaphors.
According to Ishiki (2011); since 1980s, metaphor analysis has been one of the most popular methods in language learning and teaching research to explore the way language teachers and student view the different aspects of language learning and teaching. Metaphors have been helping language teachers and students as well as researchers to organize their belief sets and have served as an aid to reflect themselves (Ellis, 2001; Ishiki, 2011). It is through metaphors and its analysis that language teachers and students conceptualize what language teaching and learning involves and their roles and objectives in the classroom.
In other words, language learners’ and teachers’ beliefs and views are embedded in the metaphors they pick so that it is crucial to look at metaphors as a reflection of complex social practice (Ishiki, 2011). As it is significantly useful for language teachers to be aware of learners’ metaphors, the process of producing and interpreting metaphors is also beneficial for learners themselves. Ellis (2001) pointed out that making learners aware of the metaphors they use to conceptualize their learning may be one way of increasing their control over learning. With metaphors as a means of expression and communication, learners can portray their voice effectively and efficiently. Through metaphor analysis, language teachers can have access to learners’ mental images which cannot be described in any other form of communication (Kesen, 2010a; Ishiki, 2011). For example, according to Huang (2011); when a learner says learning English is to plant a tree, the individual sees English learning as a long process and needs patience that you have to work on every single day. Metaphors, in this way, are representations of thoughts and also beneficial communication tools.
۲.۱.۲. Studies on Learners’ Beliefs about Language Learning and Teaching
There are a number of studies that have used qualitative methods and instruments to elicit the beliefs of language teachers and learners about different aspects of language learning and teaching. In this line, there are a number of recent studies that have employed metaphor analysis to obtain the English language teachers’ and learners’ beliefs with the assumption that our thought processes are largely metaphorical in nature (Huang, 2011; Ahkemoglu, 2011). These studies have examined the English language teachers’ and learners’ beliefs about the English language by itself, the English language learning, English classroom practices, English teacher’ roles and English learner’ roles and so on. The majority of these studies on metaphor analysis in EFL contexts (for example Karadag and Gultekin, 2012; Ishiki, 2011; Kesen, 2010a , 2010b; Erkmen, 2010; Ahkemoglu, 2011) have focused on metaphors produced by non-Iranian EFL learners except for a few studies that have focused on Iranian EFL learners but in academic contexts wherein the particiapnts have been monolingual Persian-speaking EFL learners (for example Pishghadam, Fatemi, Akbarzadeh Torghabeh, and Navari, 2008; Pishghadam and Pourali, 2011a, 2011b; Farjami, 2012a, 2012b, 2012c). The orientation of belief studies through metaphor analysis in Iranian EFL contexts reveals the fact that all these studies have been predominantly on EFL learners in monolingual as well as academic contexts. Therefore, there is a need for studies in bilingual and school-level contexts.
The review provided below is provided based on different EFL contexts in which studies on beliefs about different aspects of language learning and teaching have been conducted. So, first, studies in non-Iranian EFL contexts and then studies in Iranian EFL settings are presented.
Among the belief studies conducted earlier through metaphor analysis was the investigation conducted by Oxford (2001) wherein the personal narratives of 473 foreign language learners as immigrants from different countries in the United States were investigated and the metaphorical images they used about three language learning and teaching approaches was identified. Oxford in this study reported that these English language learners varied both quantitatively and qualitatively in the content of the metaphors they employed about teachers and teaching in an English as a second language context in an English-speaking setting. In this study, the learner’s role was not under investigation and the implications of results were not provided. One of the positive aspects of this study was using short narratives as the research instrument for metaphor elicitation from the immigrant EFL learners. This was in line with Wan et al’s (2003) comment in which qualitative research tools as reflective instruments are the best to elicit participants’ beliefs and attitudes to the different aspects of language learning and teaching.
In another study, Ellis (2002) examined metaphorical concepts and images in the diaries of six beginner learners about language learning and teaching in a German context. In his qualitative study, he reports five conceptual metaphors and their entailments, giving examples for the key words related to each metaphor including learning is a journey (e.g., I got hopelessly lost), learning is a puzzle, learning is a work, learning is a suffering, and learning is a struggle. These metaphors were collected over a long time and Ellis (2002) suggested that the metaphors provide by these beginner learners revealed two main points as learning a new language was problematic for these learners for cognitive and affective reasons and they constructed themselves as both agents of their learning and patients of experiences they could not control. There were no further discussions in this regard.
A study of Puerto Rican EFL teachers and learners by Guerrero and Villamil (2002) was one of the belief studies in which metaphor elicitation questionnaires and interviews were used to probe into the EFL teachers’ views to the various dimensions of language learning and teaching. Guerrrrero and Villamil (2002) in their investigation identified nine distinct conceptual metaphors for in-services English-as-a-Second-Language (ESL) teachers in terms of teacher’s roles, learner’s roles, and the learning process alongside the ESL teachers’ assumptions and theories underlying their beliefs. Various metaphorical conceptualizations of the language learning profession emerged, and teachers were most frequently represented in the classic roles of a leader, a provider of knowledge, an agent of change, a nurturer and an artist, whereas learners were represented by a wide range of metaphors from very active (for example, a musician, a construction worker) to very inactive (for example, a television viewer, a piece of clay). The identification of features of metaphors provided a frame of reference for understanding student teachers’ philosophical orientations, roles and practices in EFL teaching.
This investigation in a Puerto Rican ESL context was in line with the objectives of the present study in terms of the research instrument used, the data collection and analysis procedure, and the frame of reference provided for understanding student teachers’ philosophical orientations, roles and practices in EFL teaching. However, there were some differences as in the present study the participants were EFL learners and interviews as complementary research instruments were employed to validate the results.
Similarly, Ocak and Gunduz (2006) in a Cypriot EFL context elicited 620 metaphorical images

دانلود مقاله با موضوع the، of، and، language

t Iranian high school contexts especially in local areas where there are bilingual students learning English as a third language and as a school subject is overlooked. Therefore, the present study is to investigate the beliefs of Iranian Kurdish-speaking high school students’ beliefs about language learning and teaching in a context where the English language is taught as a foreign language and a school subject by the educational system. The main focus is on the roles of language learners and teachers as two crucial factors in the development of language learning and teaching.
۱.۳. Research Questions
Although there are a number of studies about the beliefs of EFL learners about different aspects of English language learning and teaching through metaphor analysis in different EFL contexts around the world and in Iran, but there are some important questions that still remain open to be answered.
One of the gaps which is required to be filled in the present study is the analysis of Iranian Kurdish-speaking high-school students’ beliefs learning EFL by means of metaphorical images. To this end, the present qualitative and descriptive study aims to answer the following research questions:
• Question 1: What are the metaphors of Iranian Kurdish-speaking high school students about language learners’ roles?
• Question 2: What are the metaphors of Iranian Kurdish-speaking high school students about language teachers’ roles?
• Question 3: To what extent are the metaphors of Iranian Kurdish-speaking high school students about the roles assigned to language teachers and language learners related to the proposed roles in the design of the most important language learning and teaching methods?
• Question 4: What are the implications of this metaphorical study for EFL learning and teaching in Iran and other contexts?
۱.۴. Objectives and Significance of the Study
Following other studies on the analysis of EFL learners’ beliefs about different aspects of language learning and teaching, the present descriptive and qualitative study aims to investigate the beliefs of Iranian Kurdish-speaking high school students’ beliefs about language learning and teaching in a context where the English language is taught as a foreign language by the educational system. One of the significant aspects of the current study is using a research instrument, that is, a metaphor elicitation questionnaire following several other studies (for example, Nikitina and Furuoka, 2008; Kesen , 2010a, 2010b; Huang, 2011; and Wan, et al 2011) to obtain the participants’ beliefs.
The present study also aims to provide the most important metaphors used by Iranian Kurdish-speaking high school students about language learning and teaching particularly about learners’ and teachers’ roles in language education. This is the first study which fills the gap in the literature in this area in this local setting.
This study also aims to help high school EFL teachers and language education officials to know about students’ beliefs about different aspects of EFL learning and teaching in order to improve language education in Iranian EFL educational context. Finally, the comparisons of the elicited metaphors about language learners’ and teachers’ roles with the roles assigned to language teachers and language learners in the designs of the most important teaching and learning methods has implications for EFL contexts.
۱.۵. Definition of the Key Words
Beliefs
Beliefs as one of the key terms in the present study are defined as “psychologically held understandings, premises, or propositions about the world that are felt to be true” (Richardson, 1996, p.102).
English as a Foreign Language (EFL)
English as Foreign Language or EFL in the current study is a term which is used to refer to English learned as a foreign language in a country or a context in which English is not commonly as a language of education, business or government (Brown, 2007, p.381).
Metaphor
According to a definition provided by the Dictionary of Merriam-Webster encyclopedia (2014), metaphor as an important term in the present thesis is “a word or a phrase for one thing that is used to refer to another thing in order to show or suggest that they are similar” ) Lakoff and Johnson, 2003, p. 158).
Language Learner’s Role:
According to Richards and Rodgers (2001, p. 27), the language learner’s role is defined as the learner’s contribution to the process of language learning and teaching as well as a learner’s status and function in the context of language learning and teaching.
Language Teacher’s Role:
Language teacher’s role as another key term in the current study is defined according to Richards and Rodgers (2001, p. 28) as the teacher’s contribution to the process of language learning and teaching as well as a teacher’s status and function in the context of language learning and teaching.
Methods of Language Learning and Teaching:
Methods also called designs according to Richards and Rodgers (2001, p. 24) are plans that consider objectives, syllabus and language content, types of learning tasks and teaching activities, learners’ roles, teachers’ roles, and the role of instructional materials for language learning and teaching.
۱.۶. Outline of the Study
The outline of the thesis is organized as follows:
• Chapter One is the Introduction section. In this chapter, first a background to the study of beliefs about language learning and teaching will be provided. Then the statement of the problem, four research questions as well as the objectives and significance of the present study are given. Additionally, the limitations of the study and the definition of key words including beliefs, English as a Foreign Language (EFL), metaphor, language learner’s role, language teacher’s role, methods of language learning and teaching used in the present study are presented.
• Chapter Two as the Review of Related Literature section provides the necessary background for the research performed for this thesis. It refers to previous studies done on EFL learners’ beliefs about different aspects of language learning and teaching through different instruments particularly using metaphor analysis of teachers’ and learners’ beliefs about different aspects of language learning and teaching. The studies are classified according to their contexts, that is, EFL contexts all around the world and Iranian EFL ones. The studies are also reviewed and described in detail with more focus on their methodology, findings, and limitations. In the end, there is a summary which makes a background for the present study.
• Chapter Three is the Methodology section. In this chapter, a detailed account of the context of study, the profile of participants, the instruments used to elicit the metaphors and the procedure adopted to get the data is provided. Additionally the way to analyze the data is presented.
• Chapter Four as the Results section shows the findings of the present study in detail. As well, the classifications of metaphors and the required tables and examples are given.
• Chapter Five is the Discussion and Conclusion section. In this chapter firstly the findings of the study are discussed in detail in comparison with previous studies according to the provided research questions. The findings of the present study are also related to the design of the most important methods of language learning and teaching. Then in the conclusion part of the study, concluding remarks, limitations of the study, and the most important implications of the study are provided. Additionally, there are several recommendations for further studies about the beliefs of EFL learners about the roles of language learner and language teacher using metaphors.
In the next chapter, Chapter 2, a review of the related literature is presented.
Chapter 2:
Review of Related Literature
۲.۱. Review of the Related Literature
The review of the relevant literature for the present study was done in order to provide a conceptual framework for the present study, to prepare a summary of the studies conducted in the field of belief studies about language learning and teaching in a wide variety of EFL contexts and particularly in Iran; and also to find the gap, that is lack of studies on language learners’ beliefs about different aspects of language learning and teaching in Iranian EFL contexts particularly at Iranian high school contexts as well as local and unique EFL education settings, which is going to be filled through the this study.
The review of the related is classified in this chapter into different sections:
First of all, a general overview of the term metaphor as a conceptual framework summarized from different

دانلود مقاله با موضوع and، the، language، of

۵.۳. Implications ۷۱
۵.۴. Limitations of the Study ۷۲
۵.۵. Suggestions for Further Research ۷۳
References ۷۵
Appendices ۷۹
List of Table
Table 4.1. Metaphors developed by Iranian Kurdish-speaking EFL learners for the concept of an English language teacher ۴۰
Table 4.2. Metaphors developed by Iranian Kurdish-speaking EFL learners for the concept of an English language learner ۴۹
List of Figure
Figure 4.1. An illustration of metaphorical themes about EFL teachers’ roles generated by Iranian Kurdish-speaking high school students ۴۸
Figure 4.2. An illustration of metaphorical themes about EFL learners’ roles generated by Iranian Kurdish-speaking high school students ۵۷
Abstract
Language learners come to educational contexts with preconceived beliefs about different aspects of language teaching and learning. These perceptions are not clear and concrete enough to language teachers and even the language learners themselves. In line with the change and increase in the direction of the qualitative studies conducted on beliefs elicited by use of metaphors all around the world, the present study aims at investigating the metaphorical reflections about language teachers’ and language learners’ roles by a group of Iranian Kurdish-Speaking high school students learning English-as-a-Foreign-Language (EFL) as their third language in a local context in Ilam, in western Iran. To this end, modified metaphor elicitation questionnaires as well as complementary short interviews were administered to a convenient sample of 86 participants. Using content analysis, the metaphorical expressions collected via completion of the metaphor prompts were structured into dominant thematic categories in terms of language teachers’ roles and language learners’ roles for further analysis. The metaphors were also examined to determine whether they fit into the roles assigned to language teachers and learners in the design of current language teaching and learning methods. Generally, the results revealed that the metaphorical images were in the same line with other previous studies. In addition, the elicited metaphors were comparatively for and against the proposed roles for EFL teachers and learners in educational settings. There were also several pedagogical implications for language teachers and language teacher educators and language education programs as well as suggestions for further investigations.
Keywords: Metaphor, EFL, Teacher’s Role, Learner’s Role, Method of Language Learning and Teaching, High School Student, Iran
Chapter 1:
Introduction
۱.۱. Introduction
Exploration of what language learners bring to educational contexts particularly the language classroom environment according to Wan, Low and Li (2011) is extremely important for monitoring and improving various aspects of language learning and teaching. What language learners bring into the language classroom is composed of a set of experiences and expectations related to their beliefs about different aspects of language learning and teaching (Chastain, 1988, p.123; Riley, 2009; Wan et al, 2011). To name several aspects, there are experiences, perceptions and expectation associated with language learners’ roles and language teachers’ roles in their classrooms, the nature of language learning, the language itself, the learning process, the teaching and learning materials, the language teaching and learning environment and the like (Chastain, 1988, p.103; Wenden, 1999; Bernat & Gvozdenko, 2005; Oz, 2007).
According to Bernat and Gvozdenko (2005), beliefs are the result of a number of factors including past experience, cultural background, educational contexts, and many other affective, cognitive, and personal factors. Beliefs according to Richardson (1996) are defined as “psychologically held understandings, premises, or propositions about the world that are felt to be true” (p.102). In this way, those who are involved in the process of teaching and learning, particularly language teacher and language learners and their beliefs and views to learning a new language certainly affect the learning process, the success of the learners and their improvements, the performance of language teachers, the design of language education materials, and the other (Ahkemoglu, 2011; Wan et al, 2011).
Since learners’ beliefs have been emphasized as a helpful factor in the success or failure of language learning and teaching, investigating the beliefs of language learners can provide helpful information for language education (Bernat and Gvozdenko, 2005). There are studies that are about learners’ beliefs about language learning and teaching such as studies conducted by Altan (2006); Bernat and Gvozdenko (2005); Tanaka and Ellis (2003); and Zare-ee (2010). These studies have used different quantitative instruments to elicit learners’ beliefs about language education. For example, many studies (for example Bernat and Lloyd, 2007; Buyukyazi, 2010; Man-fat, 2008; Mohebi and Khodady, 2011) have used BALLI (Beliefs About Language Learning Inventory, Horwitz, 1988). These instruments and studies show the beliefs of learners in a quantitative form and do not provide the personal images of language learners.
Recently, research on beliefs has used qualitative instruments such as metaphors to get learners’ beliefs about different aspects of language education. The main reason for using metaphors is the metaphorical nature of beliefs and the way learners perceive the world and reality (Ahkemoglu, 2011). There are several studies investigating learners’ beliefs about different aspects of language education by using metaphors such as Nikitina and Furuoka (2008); Kesen (2010a, 2010b); Huang (2011); and Wan, Low and Li (2011), to name just a few; but these studies have been done in non-Iranian English-as-a-Foreign-Language (EFL) contexts and they also have focused on EFL learners in academic contexts.
Although there are several recent studies in an Iranian EFL context (such as Parvaresh, 2008; Pishghadam and Pourali, 2011; Farjami, 2012a, 2012b, 2012c; Askarzadeh Torghabeh, Elahi and Khanalipour, 2009) in the area of beliefs about the different aspects of language learning and teaching; they are mostly in academic contexts and EFL learning and teaching in high school contexts especially in local areas where there are bilingual students learning English as a third language is overlooked.
Additionally, the studies conducted except a few (for example, Nikitina & Furuoka, 2008; Kesen, 2010; Ahkemoglu, 2011; Wan et al, 2011) have considered two important factors in the development of language learning and teaching that is learner and teacher and their crucial roles (Chastain, 1988, p.130) in the beliefs of language learners. Therefore, there is a need to investigate Iranian high school students’ beliefs about different concepts in language education in a context where the learners are learning English as a third language and as a school subject.
In order so, this study aims to fill the gaps in the previous studies conducted in this area and to elicit Iranian high school students’ beliefs and views about language learning and teaching particularly their beliefs about the roles assigned to language teachers and language learners by use of metaphors. As well, the present study is to consider to what extent the metaphors of Iranian Kurdish-speaking high school students about the roles of language learners and language teachers are related the results of other studies as well as to the design of the most important language learning and teaching methods, a point which is not studied in the related literature.
۱.۲. Statement of the Problem
Language learners come to educational contexts with preconceived beliefs about different dimensions of the teaching and learning process (Chastain, 1988, p.123; Ahkemoglu, 2011). These perceptions are at an implicit level that is they are not clear enough and tangible to language teachers and even the language learners themselves. So, there is a need to make these series of beliefs clear because they play an important role in language learning and teaching (Parvaresh, 2008).
There have been a number of studies on language learners’ beliefs about language education using quantitative instruments. In line with the change and increase in the direction of the studies in this area to conduct qualitative studies on beliefs elicited by use of metaphors in different educational contexts, there have been several studies in Iranian EFL settings with more focus on academic centers. Therefore, in addition to filling gaps about language learners’ beliefs about different aspects of language learning and teaching in Iranian EFL contexts; there is a need to do studies on students learning English at

منابع پایان نامه با موضوع نیازمندی ها، محصولات لبنی، مواد غذایی

مخزن معمولی بستگی دارد بعبارت دیگر منابع ضعیف Fe موجود برای ورود به مخزن معمولی شکست می‌خورند این به دلیل عدم حلالیت بستنی است که جذب پایینی دارند و: قابلیت زیستی آهن در اطفال با توجه به غذای کودکان مستعد شده ( غنی شده ) با فروس فومارات پیرو فسفات آهن ( فورمات)
غذای کودک معمولاً توسط آهن لاینحل با قابلیت زیستی نسبتاً کم مثل فروس سولفات آهن بخاطر تغییرات ارگانولپتیک بعد از اضافه کردن در منابع آهنی در آب ایجاد می شوند.
هدف مقایسه آهن فروسولفات آهن با یک منبع جایگزین آهن می باشد که در اسید رقیق و فومارات فروس محلول می باشد و ارزیابی اثر اسید اسکوربیک روی قابلیت زیستی آهن در فومارات فروس در اطفال می‌باشد.
غذای کودک تهیه شده از غلات معمولاً یکی از اولین غذاهایی هستند که به اطفال در کشورهای صنعتی و در حال پیشرفت (توسعه یافته) داده می شود به لحاظ صنعتی غلات تولید شده برای کودکان بیشترین جایگزین برای تقویت آهن، برای کودکان ونوجوانان در جوامعی هستند که هزینه های غذا در حد استفاده آنها وجود ندارد.
از غذای کودک که با آهن غنی شده بر تغذیه کودکان به ترکیبات تولید ، میزان مصرف، سطح تقویت و قابلیت زیستی ترکیبات آهن بستگی دارد. تغذیه کودکان با غذای غنی شده با آهن که از شیر گرفته شده اند نگران کننده است.زیرا زمانبندی تعریف غذاهای از شیر گرفته شده معمولاً با افزایش نیازمندی های آهن پنهان می شود که در طول رشد سریع ۴-۶ ماهه صورت می گیرد بنابر این بسیار پر اهمیت است که اطمینان حاصل کنیم کیفیت کافی قابلیت زیستی آهن در رژیم های از شیر گرفتن وجود دارد.
بک بررسی در کشور شیلی نشان داد که غذای کودک حاوی برنج که با آهن غنی شده است برای جلوگیری از ناکار آمدی آهن و بی خوابی در زمان تغذیه آنها با اسید اسکوربیک مورد استفاده قرار گرفته است.
بررسی دیگری در هندوراس حاکی از آن است که غذای کودک کامل شده با آهن ( حاوی۵۰ میلی گرم سولفات آهن ) برای تغذیه آهن کودکان بسیار مفید است.
هر چند کودک غذاهای غنی شده با آهن را مصرف می کنند اما نمی توان شیر سفید مادر را برای ۶ ماهگی ترک کرد چون غذاهای حاوی آهن بسیار برای کم خوابی آن کافی نمی باشد. اطلاعات بسیار محدودی در مورد قابلیت زیستی آهن در ترکیبات فسفات آهن در کودکان اخیراً وجود دارد و تقریباٌ هیچ اطلاعاتی در باره قابلیت زیستن آهن از فروفسفات آهن و یا فومارات فروس تا کنون در دسترس نبوده است.
نتایج بررسی کنونی نشان می دهدکه غذای کودک غنی شده با فروفسفات فریک و فومارات فروس Fe قابل دسترسی به لحاظ زیستن ایجاد می کند که هم ارز با نیازمندی های روزانه جذب آهن در کودکان با سن ۴تا ۱۲ ماهه می باشد.
بنابراین میزان قابلیت زیستن آهن با کمک غلات تقویت شده با آهن تأثیر اصلی بر روی تغذیه آهن ندارد زمانی که فومارات فروس به عنوان تقویت کننده آهن بکار می رود میزان تعادلی قابلیت زیستی آهن را نسبت به محتوای انرژی ایجاد می کند .
این نتایج نشان می دهد که غذای کودک ترکیبی که دارای نسبتاً اسیدفیتک کم هستند در ترکیب با میزان کافی اسید اسکوربیک اضافه شده می توانند میزان کافی آهن را برای رشد سریع کودکان تهیه کنند به شرطی که یک تقویت کننده با قابلیت زیستی بالا حاصل شود(۵۵).
*: میزان کادمیوم در فرمولهای غذای کودکان
Moreno-Rojas.R وهمکاران در سال ۲۰۰۱ در کشور اسپانیا اندازه گیری مقدار کادمیوم در فرمول غذای کودکان با استفاده از طیف سنجی جذب هسته ای کوره گرافیت (GFAAS) مورد بررسی قرار دادند. کادمیوم یکی از فلزات سنگین با بزرگترین انعکاس در آلاینده بی جان زنجیره غذایی می باشد.در اغلب مواد غذایی در سطوح پایینی وجود دارد با غلظت میانگین mg/kg987-95/. و به طور خاص تر در محصولات لبنی آنها دامنه ای بین mg/kg 1-2/. دارد برای غذای کودک مقادیر mg/kg7/.دامنه آن می باشد.
میزان کادمیوم که معمولاً در مناطقی که در معرض اشعه قرار دارند توسط هر فرد مصرف شود روزانه حدودmg 5-10 است میزان کادمیوم بسته به مناطق جغرافیایی، فعالیت صنعتی، کودهای شیمیایی مورد استفاده در آن می باشد.
کمیته متشکل از سازمان کشاورزی، بهداشت جهانی مصرف هفتگی قابل تحمل موقتی را mg 5/.-4/.(برای کودکان) مردان بالغ با وزن حدود ۶۰ کیلو گرم مقدار mg7 را عنوان کرده اند
اندازه گیری میزان کادمیوم در غذای کودکان در هر غذای موجود در بازار اسپانیا صورت گرفته است که ۱۵۲ نمونه از ۳۸ برند موجود در بازار تهیه ومورد آزمایش قرار گرفت.
غلظت کادمیوم برای هر یک از انواع زیر گروه های غذای کودک ، تحلیل و ارزیابی میان برندهای تجاری و انواع فرمول های کودکان و زیر گروه های خاص انجام شد برای میزان کادمیوم بطور آماری تفاوت های آشکاری p2(P<./۰۰۱) ) میان برندهای مختلف و زیر گروه های متفاوت فرمول نوزادان خاص ایجاد می شود اما تفاوتی میان انواع فرمول های نوزادان یافت نشد(۴۸). *: میزان آرسنیک غیر ارگانیک در غذای کودک حاوی برنج نگران کننده می باشد Andrewa.menorg و همکاران در سال ۲۰۰۸ در کشور انگلستان آرسنیک غیر ارگانیک یک ماده سرطانزای مزمن می باشد که بررسی غذای کودک حاوی برنج در بریتانیا میزان آرسنیک غیر ارگانیک متوسط را به مقدار ۱۱/. میلی گرم بر کیلو گرم آشکار می کند. میزان آرسنیک کودکان از شیر گرفته شده یک ساله بنظر می رسد ۱۰ برابر بیشتر از کودکان یک ماهه می باشد میزان آرسنیک کودکانی که از غذای کودک و شیر خشک نوزادان تغذیه می کنند نسبت به همنوعانشان که از شیر مادر تغذیه می کنند بیشتر است میزان آرسنیک دانه های برنج نسبت به دانه ی غلات مورد بررسی ( گندم و جو دوسر) بیشتر می باشد. منبع آرسنیک تجمع آن در خاک دلیل آلودگی آب های زیر زمینی و فاضلاب می باشد. یک نگرش جایگزینی برای کاهش میزان آرسنیک روی آوردن به سایر غلات دانه ای همچون جوی دو سر - جو ذرت وگندم بعنوان منبع کربو هیدرات / پروتئین می باشد. Williama et al(2007b) دریافت که غلاتی که به صورت هوازی رشد می کنند مانند گندم و جو آرسنیک کمتری نسبت به برنج دارند که غیر هوازی رشد می کند. *: تولید، اندازه کیفی، دوام و ذخیره سازی مواد غذایی پروتئینی و سبزیجات برای کودکان سوء تغذیه کودکان به شکل سوء تغذیه انرژی و پروتئین مهمترین بیماری کمبود در جهان می باشد خصوصاً در کشور های در حال توسعه، این مطلب مرتبط به کیفیت پایین غذایی، مصرف ناکافی غذا و عفونت ها می باشد. غذاهای مکمل سنتی برای نوزادان عموماً بر مبنای غلات همچون ذرت، برنج و گندم می باشد که انرژی مورد نیاز نوزادان را فراهم نمی کند دانه های غلات غنی از کربو هیدارت می باشند اما دچار کمبود آمینو اسید های ضروری همچون لیزین می باشد سویا منبع فوق العاده ای از پروتئین است و در غذای کودکان از شیر گرفته شده مورد استفاده قرار می گیرد افزودن پروتئین سویا به پروتئین غلات با هدف بهبود ارزش غذایی مفید می باشد. غنی سازی پروتئین غلات با پر