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similar to writing the main idea. Students are taught to restate in their own words the most important points of a section of reading as a way of making sure they understood what they read and remembered what they learned.

Table 3.4: Stage 3 of CSR’s Plan for Strategic Reading
Stage 3: During reading
CSR: Get the Gist
Students learn to get the gist by identifying the most important idea in a section of text (usually a paragraph). Get the gist means to find the main idea in a section of a text.
The goals of getting the gist are to:
1. Teach students to restate in their own words the most important point as a way of making sure they have understood what they have read.
2. Improve students’ memory of what they have learned.
In addition, students should follow these procedures to get the gist well:
– Identify the most important “who” or “what” in the paragraph or section of text they have just read.
– State in their own words the most important idea about the person, place, and thing.
– Provide the gist in as few words as possible.
Also, the focus is on these questions:
1. What is the most important person, place, or thing?
2. What is the most important idea about the person, place, or thing?

After reading (Table 3.4), students engage in the “final review” strategy that encompasses question generation (Raphael, 1982) and summative statement writing. The goal of question generation is to improve students’ knowledge, understanding, and memory of the passage read. Students are taught to write three levels of questions. “Right there” questions are those with answers that can be found in one sentence. These questions help students remember facts and focus on the most important information. “Think and search” questions are more difficult to write and require students to remember several events or facts from different sections of the passage in order to answer the questions. These questions help students synthesize information from the passage. “Author and you” questions require inference on the students’ part. Students are taught to use facts from the passage to make .inferential conclusions. Students generate and answer each type of question on their learning logs. Finally, students are taught to write in their learning logs a summative statement that includes the most important ideas from the passage. Students are also asked to use the text to justify why these were identified as the most important ideas to remember.

Table 3.5: Stage 4 of CSR’s Plan for Strategic Reading
Stage 4: After reading
CSR: Wrap-up
• Students wrap up by formulating questions about what they have learned and by reviewing key ideas.
Some of these questions are as follow:
1. ASK QUESTIONS:
What questions check whether we understand the most important information in the passage? Can we answer the questions?
2. REVIEW:
• The goals are to improve students’ knowledge, understanding, and memory of what was read.
– Students use question starters: who, what, when, where, why and how (the five Ws and an H) to write and label questions at various levels:
• Right there
• Think and search
• Author and you
– Other students try to answer the questions.
– Students ask some questions about information stated explicitly in the passage and other questions that require students to make connections and inferences from what they have read.
In Wrap-up the focus is on the followings:
• To review, students write down the most important ideas from the reading in their CSR learning logs.
• Students then take turns sharing their best ideas and provide evidence to support them.

Control Group
The control group received the common teaching procedure of Safir Language School, which almost was not concerned with teaching strategies, as follows:
• The teacher reads the texts.
• If students cannot guess the meaning of unfamiliar words from context, the teacher explains and writes the meaning of unfamiliar words on the blackboard or ask students to look them up in dictionary.
• The teacher reads the text again.
• The students repeat the text after the teacher.
• Few students read the text.
• The teacher corrects the committed errors.
• Then students do the related exercises.

At the end of the treatment phase, all participants in both groups underwent a reading comprehension post-test (The piloted reading part of another PET, having 35 items) to compare the results before and after the treatment.
Then, the statistical procedures were conducted by the researcher to see whether or not teaching CSR strategies have any significant effect on reading comprehension.

3. 5 Design of the Study
Considering the nature of the research question, research hypothesis and the treatment, this study is quasi-experimental because the participants were selected non-randomly through administering the PET, were randomly assigned into two experimental and control, and both experimental and control groups participated in pretest and post-test.

The variables of the study are:
• The independent variable: Collaborative Strategic Reading approach (CSR);
• The dependent variables: Reading comprehension
&
• The control variables: Gender (Female) and language proficiency level (Intermediate).

3.6 Statistical Analysis
Due to the formulation of the aforementioned research question, the proposed null hypothesis, and the design of the study, different descriptive statistics (e.g. mean, standard deviation, and standard error of the mean) and inferential statistics were used to analyze the data obtained. The researcher did the following data analyses:
• The data gathered from the proficiency test of homogenization, pretests, and post-tests of both groups were analyzed with the aid of the Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS).
• The Cronbach Alpha formula was employed for calculating the reliability of the test scores gained by the participants on the PET.
• An independent t-test is run to compare the experimental and control groups’ mean scores on pretest of reading comprehension in order to prove that the two groups enjoyed the same level of reading comprehension ability prior to the main study.
• An independent t-test is run to compare the experimental and control groups’ mean scores on post-test of reading comprehension in order to probe the effect of Collaborative Strategic Reading approach (CSR) on the EFL learners’ reading comprehension.

Details of the data analysis are appeared in the following chapter.

C H A P T E R IV

RESULTS AND DISCUSSION

4.1 Introduction
This research examined the effect of Collaborative Strategic Reading approach (CSR) on the reading comprehension performance of intermediate EFL students.
This chapter covers the procedures which have been conducted based on a series of calculations and statistical routines in order to test the hypothesis raised and came up with certain results that are elaborated comprehensively. Both descriptive and inferential statistics were utilized in the process, details of which are presented below.

4.2 Participant Selection

To select the participants required for this study, first of all, the researcher used a general English Proficiency Test (PET).
Afterwards, a reading part of another PET test, as a pretest, was administered to ensure the participants homogeneity in reading comprehension.
Prior to the administration, the PET test, reading comprehension pretest, and reading comprehension post-test were pil
ot
ed to make sure that they could be used confidently for this screening.
The sections below describe the details of consecutive processes of piloting and administration plus the further measures that the researcher took to ensure the existence of homogeneity as much as possible.

4.2.1 Descriptive Statistics of the PET Proficiency Test Piloting

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