same way as the data obtained from the elicitation sheets. In the next chapter, Chapter 4, the results of the study are presented and discussed.
Chapter 4:
Results and Discussion
۴.۱. Results
To elicit Iranian high school students’ beliefs and views about English language learners’ and teachers’ roles via metaphors, in this section, the main findings of the present study are presented. That is, first, the results of the study are described in detail in two subsections including metaphors about EFL teachers’ roles and metaphors about EFL learners’ roles. Then, the results of the study are presented in sum.
The present qualitative study does a metaphor analysis about the beliefs of Iranian Kurdish-speaking high school students learning English as their third language. This study will focus on the analysis of the metaphors about the English language teacher’s role and the English language learner’s role produced by the Iranian Kurdish-speaking high school students.
To do so, the data obtained from the administration a self-designed open-ended metaphor questionnaire and a self-instructed short interview following other studies in the field of metaphor analysis produced by language learners ( for example, Nikitina & Furuoka, 2008; Pishghadam and Navari, 2010; Wan, Low & Lee, 2011; Huang, 2011; Ahkemoglu, 2011).
Generally, analysis of the results revealed different manifestations of Iranian bilingual EFL learners’ beliefs about two important aspects of language learning and teaching that is language teacher’s roles and language learner’s roles in this study.
۴.۱.۱. Metaphors about EFL Teachers’ Roles
The analysis of metaphors elicited from Iranian Kurdish-speaking EFL learners about the role of an English language teacher including the themes and the metaphors under each theme can be seen in Table 1 below.
Table 4.1. Metaphors developed by Iranian Kurdish-speaking EFL learners for the concept of an English language teacher
Theme
Metaphors
Frequency
% Percent
EFL teacher as a guide
coach, director, manager, president, book, guidebook, cooking book, dictionary, police officer, foreman
۲۳
۲۶.۷۴
EFL teacher as an expert
genius, mastermind, expert, skillful person, professional, scientist, inventor, professor
۱۹
۲۲.۰۹
EFL teacher as a monster
non-human, killer, monster, stranger, devil, alien, a strange being, dragon
۱۲
۱۳.۹۵
EFL teacher as an angel
kind person, charitable person, angel, the best human being, beautiful angel, a very nice individual
۱۰
۱۱.۶۲
EFL teacher as a care-giver
dad, father, mother, uncle, aunt, guard, friend
۸
۹.۳۰
EFL teacher as a natural element
sun, rain, star, mountain, water, ocean, sea, river
۷
۸.۱۳
EFL teacher as an instrument
robot, talking machine, translating machine, computer, cell phone, television, radio
۴
۴.۶۵
EFL teacher as a creator
artist, builder, maker
۳
۳.۴۸
Eight groups of metaphorical themes were obtained out of the metaphorical images and their entailments provided by the participants of the current study. The metaphors about EFL teachers’ roles produced by Iranian Kurdish-speaking high school students with their frequency and entailments were comprised of themes such as “EFL teacher as a guide”, “ EFL teacher as an expert”, “EFL teacher as a monster”, “EFL teacher as an angel”, “EFL teacher as a care-giver”, “EFL teacher as a natural element”, “EFL teacher as an instrument”, “EFL teacher as a creator”; and finally “EFL teacher as a bore”.
The above-mentioned metaphorical images and themes about EFL teachers’ roles are described in detail with several examples elicited from the translation of the metaphor questionnaires and short interviews as follows:
The first and the highest group of themes elicited from the content analysis of metaphor questionnaires and transcription as well as translation of complementary short interviews with the highest number of images (26.73%) was summarized thematically into “EFL teacher as a guide” combined out of several metaphors such as coach, director, manager, president, book, guidebook, cooking book, dictionary, police officer and foreman. That is, participants of the present study believe that an EFL teacher is like a guide. The rationales they give for the choice of these specific metaphors and figurative images were that an EFL teacher is like a guidebook that helps us to learn speaking in a new language; an EFL teacher is like a manager who directs us to the best strategies of doing tasks; and an EFL teacher is like police officer who guides us to correct mistakes and reach for our targets. EFL teacher as a guide reveals the fact that participants believe in the guiding role of an EFL teacher. A sample quotation from the metaphor elicitation questionnaires and the short interviews for the theme “EFL teacher as a guide” are as follow:
Sample 1. Quotation from the metaphor elicitation questionnaire and the translation of the short interview for Participants No. 27 and No 41, respectively
Questionnaire
Participant No. 27:
Statement A: “An English language teacher is like a police officer.
Reason A: because he controls everything in the classroom and tries to show the best directions.
Short Interview
Participant No. 41:
An EFL teacher is like a manager. A manager in a company. He controls everybody and tries to supervise people who work there. An EFL teacher manages the class like a company. My EFL teacher is a good manager.
The second category of metaphorical concepts with the highest number of images (20.32%) for EFL teachers’ roles were grouped into the theme “EFL teacher as an expert” composed of metaphors such as genius, mastermind, expert, skillful person, professional, scientist, inventor and professor. That is, the Iranian Kurdish-speaking high school students learning EFL believe that an EFL teacher is someone who is very good at English as knowledgeable as an expert or a professional. The reasons they provide for these specific metaphors were that an EFL teacher is like a skillful and professional person who has enough knowledge about different aspects of English; an EFL teacher is a brainy man who plans everything in English; and an EFL teacher is a skillful person who invents different strange things. EFL teacher as an expert shows that participant of the current study believe in the professional role of an EFL teacher in the context of learning and teaching EFL. A sample quotation from the metaphor elicitation questionnaires and the short interviews for the theme “EFL teacher as an expert” are as follow:
Sample 2. Quotation from the metaphor elicitation questionnaire and the translation of the short interview for Participants No. 7 and No 31, respectively
Questionnaire
Participant No. 7:
Statement A: “An English language teacher is like a scientist.
Reason A: because she knows about the science of language and she is very good at everything about English.
Short Interview
Participant No. 31:
An EFL teacher is like a genius. He knows about different words and texts. He knows the meanings of all the words in Persian and in English. He can easily write and read in English. He is very skillful. He is more skillful than students. I wish I could speak like an EFL teacher.
The third group of metaphorical images (17.11%) was entitled as “EFL teacher as a monster” comprised of metaphorical images such as a non-human, killer, monster, stranger, devil, alien, a strange being and dragon. Using such metaphorical images shows that the participants of the present study look at their EFL teachers as something or someone frightening that is a main cause of fear and anxiety. The reasons which are presented for this category of metaphors were that an EFL teacher is a stranger who tortures language learners; an EFL teacher is a dangerous creature that has come from another planet with a disgusting language; and an EFL teacher is a frightening creature that hurts and kills the innocent learners. EFL teacher as a monster provides the fact that the participants of this study believe in the harmful and terrifying role of an EFL teacher in an EFL classroom. A sample quotation from the metaphor elicitation questionnaires and the short interviews for the theme “EFL teacher as a monster” are as follow:
Sample 3. Quotation from the metaphor elicitation questionnaire and the translation of the short interview for Participants No. 20 and No 76, respectively
Questionnaire
Participant No. 20:
Statement A: “An English language teacher is like an alien.
Reason A: because she speaks with a strange language we do not know about.
Short Interview
Participant No. 76:
An EFL teacher is like a monster. My classmate and I cannot understand her horrible speech in English. We are

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